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The article talks in depth how music has evolved and branched off into various directions, such as the clothing industry, sneaker ads, film industry. Music videos were one option to gain the attention of those who did not frequently visit the record store, after seeing a video of an artist performing a song or a new hit, it might spark that person to go out and purchase it. As for the industry they did not promote a music video, but at times they would take a song off of a popular band’s newest release, or showcase an upcoming band and promote it for a movie, to help get recognition for the band and the film. Advertising also institutionalized source of revenue, the Beatles “Revolution”, was used to help sell sneakers, where Bob Dylan’s “The Time They Are A Changin” was used for the auditing and accountancy firm “Coopers and Lybrand”. Music was evolving not in just better business terms of marketing music, but making better quality gadgets such as cd players. They are less complex and easier to operate and the sound quality was a huge improvement for the public. Black Catalogue discovered that people were purchasing albums that they already owned on cassettes to cd’s so it would be less of a hassle to work the cassette tapes. Although cd’s were becoming a must have for everyone, cassettes were still doing great business, it was still a handy resource because of its being capable of recording music. Now music can be found on the internet, It’s funny thinking back to Bob Dylan’s song “Times They Are A Changin”, music no longer has to be listened to on a record, or a cassette, or even a cd player, but on the internet. Since technology has been advancing, people no longer need to shop at record stores they can either purchase the album online, or go to music sites that allow the customer to purchase certain tracks separately from the album instead of buying the whole thing The newest gadget people walk around with or drive with are no longer cd’s, but devices called “iPods” which is a small rectangular gadget that can hold thousands upon thousands of songs. It is not only music that can be found on the internet but music videos are also posted and released online, which leaves the question is there still a purpose for MTV?

1990’s Indie Rock

Indie Rock music is a genre founded by musicians who tend to want to break away from the “mainstream music” leading and creating their own genre. This music started underground, some bands to this date are still known for keeping a low key and staying out of the spotlight. Some particular Indie Rock bands don’t even have a “label”; they prefer to keep themselves separated from being committed to record labels. Indie rock bands try to maintain complete control of the music they put out, and they manage their own careers. Indie Rock musicians who prevail do not do so by being signed by a huge record label, but through word of mouth. The band would be hitting the streets, booking their own shows at venues, handing out demos to friends or concert goers, etc. The main purpose of “Indie” is for bands to make it and be on their own. Underground bands try to get airplay, whether it’s on college radio or an independent station. The clothing styles that represent Indie Rock come off as people who are poor; the clothing has a look of being old and worn, especially the jeans. Most indie musicians sport jeans that are ripped and torn. The styles of hair varies, men sport messy, long, squiggly hair. Everyone in an indie band tend to look as if they just woke up. Getting back to the roots of “Indie Rock”, the message of the songs usually dealt with tapping into one’s inner emotions. The songs can also have subliminal messages in the lyrics if one pays close attention and catches it. The messages can be a metaphor for love, betrayal, fear, etc.Brad Laner, \”June Gloom\”The link is to one of my personal favorite Indie Rock musicians.  I spoke about this artist on Monday.

Tricia Rose Black Noise

Hip hop was more than just rappers rhyming beats and living in ghetto areas. The idea of hip hop is about breaking into tight knit crews, one finding his/hers identity, where does one individual fit in? It’s about individuals learning about the language on the street, and answering the question of where do they fit in with what type of posse or group? These groups of people present to the public as “intercultural bonds”, but they appear more of a street gang roaming the streets representing themselves. Groups or posses form from individuals that come from broken homes, men/women who usually prefer to be isolated from their families which cause the people in the group to rely on one another as a substitution for “family”. The aspects of hip hop ranges from either expressing themselves on stage free styling, whereas others express their gratitude for hip hop by doing graffiti art on subway trains, junkyards, or buildings. Break dancing is another aspect of hip hop. The people that fell into any one of these categories or all, at first did it for economic reasons. Many needed to do it to help stay afloat and have a roof over their heads, while others who were living with single parents, for example, divorced single mothers, did it to put money towards the bills. Hip Hop’s main goal is finding who has the best style; it’s a very competitive music genre where everyone wants to out do each other. Graffiti became a huge aspect of Hip Hop, because it helped expose not just musicians but the artist themselves. After an artist would create his/her art he/she would tag it with their name and calling card. The downfall about graffiti is that hoodlums and gangs starting picking it up and tagging their own “logos” of who they are and what they represent. At times there tensions between male and female graffiti artists. Most female artist used bright pink, creating more of a flower scene and landscapes. Unlike men who graffitied “death and destruction” Women graffiti artist were treated horribly, at times their lives were in danger due to the men graffiti artists putting a word out that the women were sexual promiscuity.”

chapters 11&12

Chapters 11 & 12

The emergence of Rock n Roll was created by the “electric guitar” which essentially continues to define the genre of rock to this day. Rock n Roll’s roots were based on a combination of “Rhythm and Blues”, traditionally an African American style of music, and “elements of country music” (228). The earliest recordings of rock were produced on 45 rpm vinyl records.
Rock not only influenced cultural changes, for example, the acceptance of R&B across all color lines, but also gave rise to “independent companies” who promoted this new genre of music to the public (224). “Radio studios often provided recording facilities for the independents, and often a friendly local radio station might be persuaded to loan out its microphones, amplifiers, and transcription recorders” (225).
Rock n Roll was not widely accepted until 1954, when Bill Haley’s cover of “Shake, Rattle & Roll” sold over 1 million copies (228). With the success of independent company, Atlantic Records, additional independent companies began popping up. By 1960, there were approximately 3,000 record labels in the US alone, and of those, only 500 were “operated by established companies” (229).
To compete with the new form of media, namely television, “local radio stations” began to consider and target the younger audience who hungered to hear Rock n Roll (232). Since radio was the avenue that promoted the selling of records, the local radio stations and independent companies catered to the “new market for recorded music” (233). Record sales soared from the mid 1950’s through 1960 at a rate of 25% per year, although rock only accounted for approximately one half of those sales. Considering that rock was promoted mainly through local stations and independents, the numbers are still quite staggering (234).
Television soon wanted a piece of the action, and in 1952 “Bandstand”, later renamed “American Bandstand” were the earliest venues to showcase up and coming musicians (236). Eventually, to appeal to a more widespread audience, rock music was used in television, and in films, and more and more of the musicians were white (238). The 1960’s paved the way for the “British Invasion” with such iconic bands as The Beatles, Rolling Stones, and many others. “The Beatles did for popular music in the 1960’s what Elvis accomplished in the 1950’s: they popularized a new sound to the mass audience and dramatically increased record sales” (241).
Chapter 12 discusses how “Recording” played an important role in capturing different ethnic backgrounds style of music, and people’s “cultural heritage”. Some races such as African Americans relied on recordings to help save their history. Other races that were fortunate to have their background history written in books, it was unfortunate that African Americans were not treated with the same respect. They relied on there music to be recorded, because it was the only way people could learn about their history and their culture. The replacement of the phonograph by the microphone allowed for more mobility for record companies to record various artists in different parts of the world.

285-295

The first innovation toward performing studio recording came in 1926 when several microphones were put to use at the Met in N.Y. The sound produced by this technique was clear and lifelike (285). However, a decade passed before the multi microphone technique was used by large recording studios. The purpose of finding a technique was to produce a “realistic reproduction of a live performance” (285). Based on the concept used by film soundmen, the recording studio went through a physical change (ex-wooden partition replaced by glass window) in order to improve the acoustics, and ultimately produce the best quality and most realistic sound.
The first studio which was custom built was EMI Abbey Road facility in London in 1931. Throughout the entire world, there was not a studio built as big or was technologically advanced. The studio had three performing areas for different wide range of artists. Studio1 was an auditorium hall where classical music was recorded. “It was able to place over 250 musicians.” (286) The second studio was not as big in comparison to studio one. This studio is where jazz musicians and dancers performed and recorded. Studio three is the smallest venue built for “small groups” with “accompanied vocalists” Electric cable ran over “4 miles” connecting these studios to a central control room.

Research Topic Outline

The band Nine Inch Nails is truly unique. None of the other bands that came on the music scene during the late 1980s was as innovative, or original as Nine Inch Nails. This band broke many barriers. Trent Reznor, the brain behind the band, is right up there with Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, and The Beatles etc. This is one of those bands that really can’t be categorized under any genre. They take rock, electronic music, metal and combine it into an intelligent concoction. Their first album was released in the last year of the 80’s and sky rocketed the band into the 90’s. They covered everything from soft ballads to instrumentals, soft rock to hard rock. The band utilized computer generated sound mixing in addition to traditional instruments and vocals. Nine Inch Nails influenced other artists as well.

The Smiths album “Meat Is Murder” is one of the most controversial/political albums. The album is political because Morrisey is an animal rights activist. Morrisey has a strong love and passion for animals, and he has, over the years, joined many animal rights campaigns. One of the tracks on the album is called “That Joke Isn’t Funny Anymore” which detours onto a different route. When the song was released as a single it was the lowest charting song of “The Smiths”. It only reached at #49 in the charts. The song starts with Morrissey singing the line: “Park the car at the side of the road you should know, time’s tide will smother you, and I will too” After the line “Park the car at the side of the road” the drums come in as if to say pay attention, for what I’m about to say is important. He then continues with “time’s tide will smother you, and so will I”, as if something has been building up inside of him, and now he needs to release the burden. From the time the song starts you feel like Morrisey is singing to you only. The listener gets a vibe that Morrisey is about to share a secret or wants to confess something in particular. Morrissey pours his heart into the line “I wish I could laugh”, emphasizing laugh by making it more than one syllable, and hitting a high note, almost letting the words and thoughts ascend to heaven.
This song, from my perspective, is about sending a message to people that what goes around comes around. Morrissey is warning people to not mock those who are sad or are struggling in life because eventually any one of us may be in the same situation. Those who think they are invincible will come to realize that even they will fall at times. The lyrics are haunting. It’s a song trying to convey empathy, to make people understand how it feels to be sinking and to have all the happiness sucked out of them. The song is not uplifting, in fact, it’s quite depressing.
In my opinion it’s Johnny Marr’s guitar playing that helped make this song a classic. At 1:00 minute through 1:38 into the song you hear Marr’s classic solo rift. It’s a unique distinct sound, Marr makes his guitar weep, and it sounds like a lost soul in distress. Johnny Marr’s guitar playing chills like an autumn breeze while a thousand cries are unleashing their emotions. While the solo is moving on Morrisey is heard softly singing: “Kick them when they fall down” “You kick them when they fall down”. In other words Morrisey is saying it’s bad enough that a person is depressed, but instead of empathy or sympathy, there are cruel people who enjoy other people’s misery. To me the soft, mournful way he sings those words, expresses shame that humans lack the capacity to identify with, or care about, those less fortunate.
It was quite an incomparable sound for its time, and still is to this date. The Smiths were not commercially popular because unlike most bands that were out at the time, these guys were singing and writing music about actual experiences that we all encounter in life at least once. The Smiths are conceivably one of the most misunderstood, and talented bands. Stephen Morrisey is a poet, who in my opinion is as good as Bob Dylan or Jim Morrison, both in his writing, and his distinctive voice, style, and execution. He is type of singer that speaks his mind truthfully and is not fearful to convey a message right from his heart, as he does in most of his songs. He may be a shy man when interviewed, but he is a man with a “big stick” when placed in front of a microphone. Towards the end of the song the harmony is so beautiful yet heartbreaking when he sings the lyrics “I’ve seen this happen in other people’s lives and now it’s happening in mine” his voice is practically in tears expressing how his life has turned upside down and is filled with desolation not comprehending why things are turning out the way they are for him. Johnny Marr’s guitar playing also gets louder (crescendo) to be on the same level and match Morrissey’s high note. I chose this song, because I do believe that it has a strong message and it needs to be heard and quite frankly it’s underrated and way overlooked. I believe most people can relate to this song on some emotional level. Those who cannot probably still have not experienced life to the fullest to where they experienced good/bad times with money, love, friendship etc.
They wrote about and touched on what most people would dare not to think twice to say. Instead of singing about parties and money. They sang about the tough times and obstacles that we are all faced with at least once in life. Stephen Morrisey writes genuine lyrics regarding people’s true colors, and the fact life isn’t always as pretty or glorious as it is commercialized to be. Morrisey wants people to understand that they shouldn’t feel alone. He wants people to feel that they are not the only ones suffering with a problem. For example, some of his songs of his songs are about homosexuality, how people are afraid to come out of the closet. During the 80’s feelings of hate were very strong for individuals who were gay. There were huge amounts of anti gay protests and gay bashings taking place. During the 1980’s Aids was surfacing and affecting people all over especially in the gay community. This probably made it even harder for gay men and women to come out of the closet due to being subjected to the public for already being hated because of their sexual orientation, and now considered to be a carrier of a deadly disease.
Essentially the Smiths were singing about what they experienced and saw in the 80’s and initially their past growing up. Morrissey is a passionate, up front musician who has been carrying issues through most of his life. Morrissey is a homosexual man who is saddened, and disillusioned by certain events, whether personal or political, and he sings about these issues with such emotion that the listener cannot help but be touched. Each song that we as listeners listen to, bring us back to a time we tend to reminisce about certain memories whether we want to or not.

The Smiths band members are as follow:
Morrissey: Singer
Johnny Marr: Guitarist, piano.
Andy Rourke: The bass player.
Mike Joyce: The Drums.
The album was recorded at Amazon Studios, Liverpool and Ridge Farm, Surrey.
Mixed at Island Studios, London, Winter 1984.
Released 1985.

http://www.scaruffi.com/vol4/smiths.html
http://www.avert.org/aids-history-86.htm

Park the car at the side of the road
You should know
Time’s tide will smother you
And I will too
When you laugh about people who feel so
Very lonely
Their only desire is to die
Well, I’m afraid
It doesn’t make me smile
I wish I could laugh

But that joke isn’t funny anymore
It’s too close to home
And it’s too near the bone
It’s too close to home
And it’s too near the bone
More than you’ll ever know …

Kick them when they fall down
Kick them when they fall down
You kick them when they fall down
Kick them when they fall down
You kick them when they fall down
Kick them when they fall down
You kick them when they fall down
Kick them when they fall down

It was dark as I drove the point home
And on cold leather seats
Well, it suddenly struck me
I just might die with a smile on my
Face after all

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
And now it’s happening in mine

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
And now it’s happening in mine

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
And now it’s happening in mine

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
And now it’s happening in mine
Oh …

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
Oh …
And now it’s happening in mine
Happening in mine
Happening in mine
Happening in mine
Happening in mine

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
Oh …
And now, now, now it’s happening in mine
(I’ve seen this happen)
Happening in mine
Oh… now, now

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
Oh …
And now it’s happening in mine
(Happen)
Happening in mine
Oh …
Happening in mine
Happening in mine
Happening in mine

I’ve seen this happen in other people’s
Lives
Oh …
And now, now, now it’s happening in mine
Happening in mine
Mine, mine
Happening in mine
The Smiths \"That Joke Isn\'t Funny Anymore\"

Chapters 8&9.

Chapter 8 Empires of Sound

It’s very intriguing how sound has affected the movie industry and helped shape it for years to come. Over the years sound has become an important source for filmmakers as to how to capture the feel of the movie and help set the mood and tone. Talking picture films were a huge “boom” in Hollywood. Audiences were flocking to the movie theaters curious to engage in a new perspective of watching a film unfold. In 1927 when the “Jazz Singer” hit theaters it was a huge success that charged most moviegoers “$3.00” which at the time was considered highly priced and yet people still paid to see it. The film took in over five million dollars, which became one of the most profitable and successful films throughout the 1920’s and 30’s. The film was not the only thing on people’s minds but the music and songs used in the film became the topic of conversation as people poured out of the theaters. Once the film ended some moviegoers were overheard by others humming some of the songs.
Eventually two of the songs from the film such as “Sonny Boy” and “Rainbow Around My Shoulder” were being demanded by people and became “international hits”. The songs were recorded by Brunswick company. This gave the Film Industry an idea to not only advertise their films, but to use music to help advertise upcoming movies. Film companies believed that if people were hearing there favorite songs on a film soundtrack or aired on a film commercial it would spark their interest to want to see the film. By combining music into the film it also helped add more style and soul to it. This enabled the expansion of both the music industry and film industry together. Each industry will be making a prophet on each other’s goods. The film industry saw this as another way of advertising their films getting through to people that may not watch films or go to movie theaters on a regular basis. However, if music listeners come to learn that their favorite artist or music will be aired on a film; studios knew that promoting the music would draw in more fans. The premise was that fans would either see the film, buy the soundtrack, or maybe do both. Not only film fanatics would be flocking to theaters but music lovers and fellow musicians may pay their money to view a film because of a certain song they are looking to hear that is aired during some scene in the film. The film industry is clever and equipped with ways of expanding their fan base. Huge profits could be made both on the film and the soundtrack. Especially if music fans awaiting a new song being released by a beloved and well known artist which was only written for and can only be found on the soundtrack. This was another way the music industry could expand by also promoting up and coming musicians by getting their music out there.

Chapter 9
“By the 1930s popular music was finding ways to reach millions of people by record production, film making, and radio broadcasting”. Musicians were catching a break and finding it much easier to promote their music through radio and movies. It was indeed crucial for musicians to get their songs on radio, around this time the “ubiquitous microphone was created which was used in film stages, dance halls, recording studios”, it picked up the sound of the musicians performing and sent it through the electrical currents, transferring the music from its starting point, through the airwaves of radio to anyone listening across the country. During the 30’s most upcoming musicians were not only well known for singing but at the same time as they were making their way up the ladder of success they were offered movie roles. The movies they did appear in had them portrayed as singers and dancers. Of the many famous musicians who contributed not just in the recording studio, but were also part of the movie industry were people such as Bing Crosby and Fred Astaire. Bing Crosby before he made it big, constantly hit the pavement and forced himself to be heard and seen, for years Crosby would be seen “singing in clubs and dance halls” until someone spotted him. The man who found Crosby was Paul Whiteman. Paul Whiteman had a radio program and had Bing Crosby make his first ever debut on his station in 1929. It was in 1931 when Bing Crosby was signed by the “Columbia Broadcasting System”. Bing Crosby was on a number of radio shows, one show in particular was his “Kraft Music Hall” which ran for an hour which was a whole hour filled with “music, talk, and comedy”. He became one of the most popular people on radio during the 30’s. Crosby reached “millions” of people at one point in his career when he was able to promote his music on the “Brunswick and Decca labels”. Later on in 30’s and by the 40s another type of music was forming called “Swing Music”. It was Jazz/dance music. Benny Goodman was one of the first original musicians that brought “Swing Music” to the scene. Benny Goodman at first worked as a “session man in New York recording studios” and like most people was struggling trying to make a living. It wasn’t until the year of 1935 where he signed up to be on “network radio program “Let’s Dance” which landed him on the map. As swing music was growing and expanding to the masses, people of all ages ranging from younger generations to the older generation were enjoying it. Saturday nights were a great night to advertise it. Most people back then would head to the movies but once this music became popular, people were no longer heading out, instead they were staying home, turning on the radio and listening to the “Swing Music” .

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